The existence of pre-diabetes is a novelty for the majority of the world’s population. Very often this state stays unnoticed. The reason is that it almost doesn’t show any signs. Only some patients having pre-diabetes feel some symptoms.
How is pre-diabetes diagnosed?
To find out if you have pre-diabetic state or not, you should pass one of the blood tests:
- Fasting plasma glucose test. The blood is taken on an empty stomach. You shouldn’t eat or drink 8 hours preceding the test. Numbers lower than 100 mean that you don’t have any problems. In case the results show 100-125, you have pre-diabetes. And the worst scenario is when the level of glucose exceeds 126. It means you have type-2 diabetes.
- Oral glucose tolerance test checks the quantity of glucose in blood under load. The procedure is the next: you undergo fasting plasma glucose test. Then you drink the solution of 75mg of glucose and wait a couple of hours. Then comes another testing of blood. The results may be decrypted this way:
140 or less – norm;
140 – 199 – pre-diabetes;
200 and higher – type-2 diabetes.
- Hemoglobin A1C test. It determines the rate of blood glucose within the previous 2 or 3 months. It may indicate the presence of illness and if you already have it, the test will show if it is properly controlled. The results of this test are normal if it shows 5.6% or lower. Pre-diabetes is identified at 5.7% – 6.4%. Diabetes – 6.5% and more.
What are the common symptoms?
It is difficult to notice pre-diabetes symptoms as they may be light or even absent. Sometimes we may mix them up with the symptoms of other illnesses. So here are the most frequently reported signs of pre-diabetes:
- Yellowish, brownish or reddish patches on skin. They are called necrobiosis lipodica. Your skin may be itchy; besides, it looks shiny and scaly. The blood vessel may be seen through the skin. Sometimes you may notice dark, velvety patches on the skin. It is the sign of high insulin level.
- Gout. This disease may develop on the background of pre-diabetes. It is a kind of arthritis, which develops because of uric acid crystals forming in your joints and bones. This illness is characteristic of obese people, which are at risk.
- Hair loss. This symptom is often unnoticed, as it may be the sign of many other conditions and diseases.
- Digital sclerosis. Thickening of the skin because of the damage of blood vessels caused by high glucose level.
- Extreme tiredness. Blood sugar, which is supposed to nourish the cells to produce energy, stays in the bloodstream. Hence, you feel fatigue all the time.
In case your pre-diabetes gets close to real diabetes, you may feel constant thirst and frequent need of urination.
Whenever you notice any signs of possible pre-diabetes, consult your medical health provider and take the blood test.